Biggest turning point in world history
In the year 1473, Joao Vaz Corte-Real, a Portuguese sailor reached Newfoundland. This perhaps led to the establishment of the first colony of the New World.
Two decades later, during his second voyage, Columbus founded Isabela, the first permanent Spanish settlement on Hispaniola (modern day Dominican Republic and Haiti). This for sure was one of the earliest colonies, if not the earliest.
For the next five centuries, colonialism shaped the world socially, politically, economically, culturally and demographically. The effects are permanent. Little did Corte-Real or Columbus know that their modest arrival on a distant foreign land would have such far-reaching consequences.
History got divided into two parts in the 15th century - world before colonialism and the world thereafter.